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SOCIOLINGUISTICS-VIETNAMESE ENGLISH- Mình thấy nó cũng rất hay đó, các bạn thử đọc nhé!

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SOCIOLINGUISTICS-VIETNAMESE ENGLISH- Mình thấy nó cũng rất hay đó, các bạn thử đọc nhé!

Bài gửi by Trinh Thi Ngat on 22/01/10, 06:11 pm

VIETNAMESE ENGLISH

A PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION OF VIETNAMESE-ENGLISH

English is now spoken in Vietnam with the mixture of Australian, British, North American, Asian and Vietnamese regional accents due to teachers’ and trainers’ different sources of training. English is used by the Vietnamese people at schools, universities, and in contact with English-speaking foreigners in everyday life. This English can be certainly named Vietnamese-English, a variety of World Englishes. It not only shares the most basic linguistic features of Standard English which make it understandable by members of the English-speaking community (intelligibility)but it alsopossesses its own subsystem of phonological, grammatical and lexical features to reflect its social and regional nuances (social identity). It satisfies the conditions of a variety of English on the basis of the descriptive approach to language. The approach aims to describe the ways in which language changes and varies on the philosophy that all speakers and writers make decisions about the kinds of language they use. They think about whom they will be addressing (audience) and the kind of relationship they need to create. They assess the formality or informality of the occasion (context) and the reason for the speech or writing (purpose). Their assessment is based on the appropriateness, the acceptability (Thorne 1997:93) and the culture-bound sensitivity to the phonological, lexical, grammatical and discoursal choices for different linguistic expectations in the different situations (Tran 1998).

Vietnamese-English may be listed in the Expanding Circle of Kachru’s diagram (1990) where the Inner Circle includes English in the UK, the USA, Australian, New Zealand and Canada and reflects the spread of English through demographic factors, through the movement s of population. The Outer Circle includes English in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Zambia and reflects the spread of language through political influence. The Expanding Circle reflects the spread of language through economic and cultural influence and includes a growing list of English in China, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, USSR, Zimbabwe, Vietnam….

From the preliminary research on the English used by the Vietnamese teachers and students, tour guides and governmental officials and their linguistic mistakes analysis, we can draw out some basic linguistic features of Vietnamese-English (VE) as follows :

1. At the phonological level :

VE not only shares the system of Standard English vowels, dipthongs, consonants, stresses and intonation types but it also creates a phonological subsystem of its own suitable to the Vietnamese people’s language habits through many different strategies :

(i) replacement :

/p/ -------> /b/ in initial position. For example: -pet /bet/

/q/ or /ð/ -------> /d/ in all positions. For example: -this /dis/

/Ѕ/ or /s/ -------> /s/ in all positions. For example: -shell /sell/

/s/ or /z/ -------> /s/ in final position. For example: -says/seis/

/ʧ/ -------> /s/ or /ʧ/ in all positions. For example: -teach /tis/

/ʤ/or /ʒ/------> /z/ in all positions. For example: -pleasure /plez/

/η/ -------> /n/ in initial and final positions. For example: -singing

/sinin/

(/p/k/t/ aspirated) -----> /p/k/t/ in initial and midle positions. For example:-cat

/ket/

/j/ -------> /i/ or /z/ in initial position. For example : -you /iu/ or /zu/

/f/ -------> /v/ or /Ø/ in final position. For example : -life /laiv/

/æ/ -------> /e/ in all positions. For example : -hat /het/

/^/ --------> /ə/ in all positions. For example : -shut /sət/

/i/ -------> /I/ or /e/ in all positions. For example : -fit /fIt/ or /fet/

(ii) dropping:

/skt/ ------> /st/ in final position. For example : -asked /ast/

/s/z/d/ ------> /Ø/ in final position. For example : -cooks /kuk/, -found /faun/

(iii) addition :

- another vowel /ə/ is added to the consonant in final position to form a new syllable. For example : -teach / ‘tisə/.

Besides, due to the influence of six tones of the Vietnamese language and the over-sensitivity to English word stresses, the Vietnamese people’s utterances are often accompanied with a rough intonation (normally with the rise). Sometimes, the stressed syllable in the polysyllabic words are overstressed, which makes the native speakers difficult to distinguish which part of the utterance receives contrastive stress.

2. At the grammatical level :

VE exploits most of the morphological and syntactical features of Standard English but , simultaneously, VE also creates its own grammatical ones as follows :

+ In terms of morphology :

(i) VE is rather conscious of using the definite article THE where the grammatical rules can apply to. For example,

* before a singular or plural noun standing after or before a dependent clause

beginning with WHICH, THAT

* before a singular or plural noun modified by an adjective denoting nationality : - in

the Vietnamese contexts,...

The Vietnamese people feel safe to use THE although in some cases, the native speakers find it unnatural.

(ii) VE often uses personal pronouns their/ they instead of his/her in the sentences containing indefinite pronouns such as everyone, each (person) : - Everyone must do their own work.

(iii) VE

· has no clear-cut distinction between adjectives and adverbs ending with -LY : -He walks quick. (=He walks quickly). VE avoids using quickly and uses fast instead.

· between comparative adjectives and comparative adverbs either of short or long: -He is more clever. - He understood the issues quicker.

(iv) VE often uses

· much, many before count plural and uncount nounsand avoiding using plenty of, a lot of, a lot, lots of, a great deal of due to complicated nuances of each word.

· Similarly, VE sometimes uses few, little for a few, a little.

(v) VE

· is very conscious of using past perfect of the verbs in the cases where the native speakers just use simple past.

· In addition, VE uses simple present for present continuous in the sentence such as - What do you you ? ( instead of -What are you doing ?) or -I live in Vietnam now. (instead of -I’m living in Vietnam ).

(vi) VE does not distinguish clearly prepositions from conjunctions of reason such as because, because of, since, for, as.

(vii) VE

· has no clear-cut distinction in using prepositions IN, AT, ON before nouns denoting the location, time, address : - in the street, - on the street, -at school, - in the schoo, - in time, - on time,...

· sometimes drops a preposition standing after another preposition : - look out the windows (= look out of the windows), -go out the rain (=go out of the rain).

+ In terms of syntax :

(i) VE’s word order

· obeys that of Standard English but sometimes the order of adjectives as modifiers of nouns is violated.- I met a beautiful American lady on the street. or - I met an American beautiful lady on the street.

· VE often uses sentences which contain normal word order such as S+V+O+A and avoids using inverted or emphatic word order like A+S+V+O or A+Aux+S+V+O.

(ii) VE prefers to use simple sentences to complex sentences and avoids the use of sentence connectors.

(iii) VE adds BUT before main clauses in the sentence beginning with ALTHOUGH.

Eg. -Although she was sick but she had to go to school yesterday.

(iv) VE often prefers to use active sentences to passive sentences.

(v) VE rarely expresses negation with NO (subclausal negation) but often uses clausal negation with NOT because Vietnamese does not have negative sentences with object or complement.

3. At the lexical level :

(i) VE

· often uses words denoting general characteristics (not denoting specific nuances).

· adds prepositions or adverbs after verbs : - Find (out) 5 words denoting emotions.

· expresses the ideas in the Vietnamese way : - Talk about the problem (=Discuss the problem), - Phone to your friends (=Phone your friends),

(ii) VE

· uses words containing connotative meanings different from the native speakers: -As strong as a buffalo (=as strong as a horse), -socialization of education,...

· uses English words to express local identity : - red and expert,..

· creates slangs known or unknown to the native speakers : - no star where (=never mind), -no table (=no discussion), -no four go (=no problem)...4. At the discoursal level :
(i) VE expresses ideas and supports ideas in a roundabout way different from the linear way practised by the native speakers.
(ii) VE rarely gives detailed or specific ideas but general ideas.

(iii) VE concludes or sums up the discussion by raising new problems to go on a further debate later.
(còn tiếp)


Được sửa bởi Trinh Thi Ngat ngày 22/01/10, 06:30 pm; sửa lần 1.

Trinh Thi Ngat

Tổng số bài gửi : 33
Join date : 13/10/2009

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Re: SOCIOLINGUISTICS-VIETNAMESE ENGLISH- Mình thấy nó cũng rất hay đó, các bạn thử đọc nhé!

Bài gửi by Trinh Thi Ngat on 22/01/10, 06:14 pm

VIETNAMESE AND REGIONAL VARIETIES OF VIETNAMESE

Khái quát về hệ thống ngữ âm của 3 vùng phương ngữ

Hiện nay, chuẩn ngữ âm chưa được chính thức quy định. Nếu ta lấy hệ thống âm vị tiếng Việt được phản ánh qua chính tả làm chuẩn để khảo sát sự khác nhau của 3 phương ngữ nói trên thì có thể nêu lên những đặc trưng ngữ âm chủ yếu như sau:

1. Những đặc điểm ngữ âm của phương ngữ Bắc

1.1. Hệ thống thanh điệu

- Số lượng: 6 thanh.

- Khu biệt: đối lập từng đôi một về âm vực và âm điệu.

1.2. Hệ thống phụ âm đầu

- Số lượng: 20 âm vị.

- Trong số 20 âm vị trên, không có những phụ âm ghi trong chính tả là s, r, gi, tr. Tức là không phân biệt giữa: s/x, r/d/gi, tr/ch.

1.3. Hệ thống âm cuối

- Số lượng: Có đủ các âm cuối ghi trong chính tả.

- Có 3 cặp âm cuối nằm trong thế phân bố bổ sung là:

+ [-nh, -ch] đứng sau nguyên âm dòng trước: /i, e, ê/;

+ [-ng, -k] đứng sau nguyên âm dòng giữa (hàng sau không tròn môi – theo cách gọi của GS. Đoàn Thiện Thuật): /ư, ơ, â, a/.

+ [-ngm, kp] đứng sau nguyên âm dòng sau tròn môi: /u, ô, o/.

Trong chính tả, đôi phụ âm thứ 3 này không được thể hiện phân biệt với đôi phụ âm thứ 2, mặc dù chúng được phát âm khác nhau (cặp thứ 2 là các âm cuối mở, còn cặp thứ 3 lại là các âm cuối ngậm môi).

1.4. Phương ngữ Bắc lại có thể được chia thành 3 vùng nhỏ hơn:

- Phương ngữ vòng cung biên giới phía Bắc nước ta.

Phần lớn người Việt ở khu vực này đều mới đến từ các tỉnh đồng bằng có mật độ cao như Thái Bình, Hà Nam Ninh (cũ). Do quá trình cộng cư xảy ra gần đây nên phương ngữ này phát triển theo hướng thống nhất với ngôn ngữ văn học, mang những nét khái quá chung của phương ngữ Bắc, và không chia manh mún thành nhiều thổ ngữ làng xã như phương ngữ Bắc ở các vùng đồng bằng – cái nôi của người Việt cổ.

- Phương ngữ vùng Hà Nội và các tỉnh xung quanh (Hà Bắc (Bắc Ninh, Bắc Giang), Vĩnh Phú (Vĩnh Phúc, Phú Thọ), Hà Sơn Bình (Hà Tây, Hoà Bình), Hải Hưng (Hải Dương, Hưng Yên), Hải Phòng)

Đây là vùng mang những đặc trưng tiêu biểu của phương ngữ Bắc.

- Phương ngữ miền hạ lưu sông Hồng và ven biển (Thái Bình, Hà Nam Ninh, Quảng Ninh).

Vùng này còn lưu giữ lại cách phát âm khu biệt d với gi,r ; s với x; tr với ch mà các phương ngữ Bắc khác không phân biệt nữa.

2. Những đặc điểm ngữ âm của phương ngữ Trung

2.1. Hệ thống thanh điệu

Gồm 5 thanh điệu, khác với hệ thống thanh điệu phương ngữ Bắc cả về số lượng lẫn chất lượng.

2.2. Hệ thống phụ âm đầu

- Số lượng: 23 phụ âm.

- Trong số 23 phụ âm trên, hơn phương ngữ Bắc 3 phụ âm uốn lưỡi /ş, z, / (chữ quốc ngữ ghi bằng s, r, tr). Trong nhiều thổ ngữ có 2 phụ âm bật hơi [ph, kh] (giống như chữ viết đã ghi lại) thay cho 2 phụ âm xát /f, χ/ trong phương ngữ Bắc.

2.3. Hệ thống âm cuối

Phụ âm /-ŋ, -k/ có thể kết hợp được với nguyên âm ở cả 3 hàng. Tuy vậy, trong những từ chính trị-xã hội mới xuất hiện gần đây vẫn có các cặp âm cuối [-nh, ch] và [-ngm, kp]

2.4. Phương ngữ Trung cũng có thể chia thành 3 phương ngữ nhỏ hơn

Cơ sở của sự phân chia này là sự khác nhau về thành điệu giữa 3 khu vực.

- Phương ngữ Thanh Hoá

+ Lẫn lộn thanh hỏi với thanh ngã (phát âm không phân biệt).

+ Các thanh còn lại giống với phương ngữ Bắc.

- Phương ngữ vùng Nghệ Tĩnh

+ Không phân biệt thanh ngã với thanh nặng.

+ Cả 5 thanh tạo thành một hệ thống thanh điệu khác với phương ngữ Bắc do có độ trầm lớn hơn.

- Phương ngữ vùng Bình Trị Thiên

+ Không phân biệt thanh hỏi và thanh ngã.

+ Về mặt điệu tính lại giống với thanh điệu Nghệ Tĩnh. Riêng vùng Thừa Thiên-Huế có hệ thống vần và âm cuối giống phương ngữ Nam. Điều này có nguồn gốc lịch sử -xã hội. Vì vậy, do sự pha trộn phương ngữ Trung và phương ngữ Nam trong pưhơng ngữ Thừa Thiên-Huế, nên nó không tiêu biểu cho cả vùng. Tiêu biểu cho phương ngữ Trung là dải phương ngữ từ Nghệ Tĩnh đến sông Bến Hải.

3. Những đặc điểm ngữ âm của phương ngữ Nam

3.1. Hệ thống thanh điệu

- Số lượng: 5 thanh.

- Thanh ngã với thanh hỏi trùng làm một.

- Xét về mặt điệu tính thì đây là một hệ thống khác với phương ngữ Trung và phương ngữ Bắc.

3.2. Hệ thống phụ âm đầu

- Số lượng: 23 phụ âm.

- Có các phụ âm uốn lưỡi /ş, z, / (chữ viết ghi là s, r, tr). Ở Nam Bộ, có thể phát âm rung lưỡi [r]. So với các phương ngữ khác, phương ngữ Nam thiếu phụ âm /v/, nhưng lại có thêm âm [w] bù lại; không có âm /z/ và được thay thế bằng âm [j].

3.3. Âm đệm /-w-/ đang biến mất dần trong phương ngữ Nam.

3.4. Phương ngữ Nam cũng mất đi nhiều vần so với phương ngữ Bắc và phương ngữ Trung. Và nó cũng thiếu cặp âm cuối /-ŋ, k/. Trong khi đó, cặp âm cuối [-ngm, kp] lại trở thành những âm vị độc lập.

3.5. Phương ngữ Nam có thể chia thành 3 vùng nhỏ hơn

- Vùng phương ngữ Quảng Nam-Quảng Ngãi:

Vùng này khác các nơi khác ở sự biến động đa dạng của âm /a/ và /ă/ trong kết hợp với các âm cuối khác nhau.

- Các phương ngữ Quy Nhơn đến Thuận Hải mang đặc trưng chung nhất của phương ngữ Nam.

- Phương ngữ Nam Bộ đồng nhất các vần:

-in, -it với -inh, -ich

-un, -ut với -ung, -ucVùng này cũng có khuynh hướng lẫn lộn s/xtr/ch như phương ngữ Bắc. Nhưng trong ngôn ngữ thông tin đại chúng, trong các hoạt động văn hoá giáo dục, sự phân biệt các phụ âm này lại được duy trì rất có ý thức.

Trinh Thi Ngat

Tổng số bài gửi : 33
Join date : 13/10/2009

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Re: SOCIOLINGUISTICS-VIETNAMESE ENGLISH- Mình thấy nó cũng rất hay đó, các bạn thử đọc nhé!

Bài gửi by Trinh Thi Ngat on 22/01/10, 06:27 pm

LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL INTERESTS: SOCIOLECT 1: SLANGS

1: The concept of Slang & Slang as a deviation of norms

1.Sometimes SLANG is used to escape the dull familiarity of standard words, to suggest an escape from the established routine of everyday life. When slang is used, our life seems a little fresher and a little more personal. Also, as at all levels of speech, slang is sometimes used for the pure joy of making sounds, or even for a need to attract attention by making noise. The newness and informality of certain slang words produce pleasure.But more important than this expression of a more less hidden aesthetic motive on the part of the speaker is the slang's reflection of the personality, the outworld, clearly visible characteristics of the speaker. By and large, the man who uses slang is a forceful, pleasing, acceptable personality.

2.SLANG is a sociolect, a colloquial departure from standard usage; it is often imaginative, vivid, and ingenious in its construction - so much so that it has been called "the plain man's poetry".

3.SLANG especially attracts those who, for reasons of personality or social identity, want to be linguistically different, to be "one of the gang", whether " the gang" in question be soldiers, nurses, actors, footballers, prisoners, linguists, or pop singers.

4. SLANG consists of words, expressions, and meanings that are informal and are used by people who know each other very well or who have the same job or the same interests. Slang is not considered suitable for formal social situations or serious writing.

2: Development of slang

1.There are many kinds of slang, e.g. public-house, commercial, society, military, parliamentary and others used by different social groups of different ages.

2. The Oxford English Dictionary identifies three types of slang.

(a) The first to which the term 'slang' was applied, in the mid-eighteenth century, was 'the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low and disreputable character', the thieves' cant or patter of earlier centuries. This vein of slang thrives today in the vocabulary of the underworld, street gangs, drug trafficking.

(b)But soon after the mid-eighteenth century, the meaning of 'slang' broadened to include 'the special vocabulary or phraseology of a particular calling or profession': printers' slang, costermongers' slang, even the slang vocabulary of doctors and lawyers. Both of these types of slang served many purposes, but the predominant one was as a private vo­cabulary binding together members of a subculture or social group, con­ferring upon them an individuality distinct from the rest of the community.

(c) Finally, in the early years of the nineteenth century, the term 'slang' came to be applied much more generally to any 'language of a highly colloquial type, considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some new special sense

3. Today slang covers all three of these areas: not all colloquial or informal vocabulary is slang, but all slang is colloquial or informal.



3: Reasons for creating slang

Eric Partridge in SLANG: TODAY AND YESTERDAY was able to distinguish as many as 15 reasons for the use of SLANG:

1. for the fun of it

2. as an exercise

3. to be different

4. to be picturesque

5. to escape from cliches

6. to be arresting

7. to enrich the language

8. to add concreteness to speech

9. to reduce seriousness

10. to be colloquial

11. for ease of social interaction

12. to introduce intimacy

13. to show that one belongs

14. to exclude others

15. to be secret



4: Formation of slang

1.Newly coined: CD, chôm, phóng

2.Acquiring new meanings: cool, cat, bốc hơi, cò, vui vẻ,…

3.Using a sense among senses of polysemous words: đạn, pháo,

4.Clipping, abbreviation: WC, VIP,…

5.Adopting borrowings: xe-cần-hen, xi-căng-đan, pê-đê,…

6.Taking forms as metaphors, similes: dead as a door nail,…

7.Changing sounds: thủ tục đầu tiên=tiền đâu, chà đồ nhôm=chôm đồ nhà,…

8. Using proper name: Thị Nở, Đời cô Lựu, Jones,…



5: Types of slang

1.Teen slangs

2.E-chip newspapers slang

3.Students’ slang

4.Criminals’ slang

5.Police’s slang

6……

(còn tiếp)

Trinh Thi Ngat

Tổng số bài gửi : 33
Join date : 13/10/2009

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Re: SOCIOLINGUISTICS-VIETNAMESE ENGLISH- Mình thấy nó cũng rất hay đó, các bạn thử đọc nhé!

Bài gửi by Trinh Thi Ngat on 22/01/10, 06:40 pm

Q6: Examples of slang

airhead: stupid person.

"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"

amigo: friend (from Spanish).

"I met many amigos at Dave's ESL Cafe."

ammunition: toilet paper.

"Help! We're completely out of ammunition!"

antifreeze: alcohol.

"I'm going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!"

armpit: dirty, unappealing place.

"This cheap motel is an absolute armpit!"

ass [offensive] (1): backside.

"I fell on my ass on the ski slopes."

ass (2): an unworthy and hated person.

"I cannot be friends when you act like an ass."

awesome: great and impressive.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is truly awesome!"

baby boomer: a person born from the end of the Second World War until the early 1960s.

"Dave Sperling was born in 1961, so he's considered a baby boomer."

ball (1): a fun time.

"I really had a ball in Dave's ESL class."

ball [offensive] (2): a testicle.

"After getting kicked in the balls, his voice seemed much higher."

bang (1): a very powerful thing.

"Disneyland is really a bang!"

bang (2): a powerful effect.

"Japanese sake really has a bang!"

barf (1): vomit.

"My dog barfed all over the carpet."

barf (2): vomit.

"Don't step on the barf!"

barf-out: a displeasing person or affair.

"That restaurant was a real barf-out."

bazillion: an infinite number of something.

"Has Dennis really taught a bazillion students?"

B-ball: basketball.

"Do you wanna play b-ball with me?"

beans: money.

"I've worked for this company for ten years, but I still don't have beans."

beat: tired.

"I'm really beat because I was awake all night."

beemer: a BMW.

"He wants to buy a beemer when he makes more money."

biggie: something important.

"I was hoping to get my homework completed, but it's no biggie. "

biker: a motorcycle rider.

"Dave used to be a biker until he got into a serious motorcycle accident."

bitch [offensive] (1): a very unpleasant woman.

"My boss can be such a bitch sometimes."

bitch [offensive] (2): complain.

"Stop bitching and finish your homework!"

bitchy [offensive]: moody.

"I like my friend Steve, even though he can be really bitchy."

bod: body.

"Stalone has a great bod!"

bonkers; go bonkers: crazy.

"If Dave works too hard, he sometimes goes slightly bonkers!"

booboo: a mistake.

"I made a booboo on the last question of the exam."

boob tube: television.

"Benjamin is always in front of the boob tube."

booze: alcohol.

"The ESL party was fun, even though there wasn't any booze."

boss: excellent; great.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is totally boss!"

bread: money.

"Can I borrow some bread?"

brew (1): coffee.

"Every morning Dave needs a fresh cup of brew."

brew (2): beer.

"Do you want another brew, dude?"

brewski: beer.

"I love drinking brewskies!"

B.S.: bullshit; lies.

"I'm tired of listening to your B.S."

bull: bullshit; lie.

"That's a bunch of bull!"

bullshit [offensive]: lie; dishonesty.

"I don't like people that bullshit me"

buns [possibly offensive]: the rear end; buttocks.

"Don't stare at my buns!"

bushed: extremely tired.

"I'm completely bushed."

butt: the buttocks.

"Stop sitting on your butt and help me wash the dishes!"

catch some rays: get some sunshine.

"Let's go to the beach and catch some rays."

cheesy: cheap; outmoded.

"Why are you wearing such cheesy clothes?"

chicken: coward.

"Don't be such a chicken!"

cool: excellent; superb.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is totally cool!"

cooler, the: jail.

"If you drink and drive, you'll end up spending time in the cooler."

couch potato: a person who watches too much television.

"Why did I have to marry such a couch potato?"

crap [offensive] (1): something worthless.

"My furniture is a bunch of cheap crap."

crap [offensive] (2): excrement.

"Yuck! I stepped on dog crap!"

crap [offensive] (3): falsehoods and lies.

"I've had enough of your crap."

deck: to hit someone.

"His wife almost decked him when he returned home with lipstick on his shirt."

dicey: unpredictable; risky.

"Gambling is a dicey occupation."

dinero: money (from Spanish).

"I wish I had more dinero!"

dirt: extremely bad person.

"My ex-boyfriend was dirt."

dirty: offensive; pornographic.

"Stop looking at the pictures in that dirty magazine!"

dorky: strange; peculiar.

"If you keep acting so dorky, you'll never get a girlfriend!"

dude: a male.

"That's really cool, dude!"

dynamite: powerful; excellent.

"Dave gave a dynamite presentation."

dinosaur: something old fashioned or out of date.

"I'd love to surf the Net, but unfortunately my computer is a dinosaur."

el cheapo: something cheap.

"Since I don't make much money, I always purchase the el cheapo brand."

evil: great; excellent.

"Your car is really evil!"

eyeball: to stare long and hard at someone or something.

"Dave eyeballed his daughter's new boyfriend."

eyepopper: something or someone visibly astounding.

"Wow, that girl is truly an eyepopper!"

fab: fabulous.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is really fab!"

face-off: confrontation.

"I think it's time we had a face-off."

fart [offensive]: to expel intestinal gas.

"It's embarrassing to fart on the first date."

fender-bender: small accident.

"This morning I had a fender-bender on the Ventura Freeway."

flaky: unpredictable.

"I waited four hours for my flaky friend to show up."

flashback: sudden memory.

"In Little Tokyo I had a flashback to my days living in Japan."

flick: movie.

"Let's go out tonight and watch a flick."

fox: attractive, alluring person.

"Is it true that Dave is a fox?"

freebie: something that does not cost money.

"My trip to New York was a freebie." (còn tiếp)

Trinh Thi Ngat

Tổng số bài gửi : 33
Join date : 13/10/2009

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Re: SOCIOLINGUISTICS-VIETNAMESE ENGLISH- Mình thấy nó cũng rất hay đó, các bạn thử đọc nhé!

Bài gửi by Trinh Thi Ngat on 22/01/10, 06:43 pm

French kiss [possibly offensive]: kissing with the tongue.

"Dave's dog is always trying to French kiss him!"

geek: someone who works too hard, is more intelligent than usual, and is slightly unattractive.

"Bill Gates is kind of a geek."

get it: to understand something.

"Sorry, but I just don't get it."

get naked [possibly offensive]: to completely relax and have a good time.

"Let's get naked tonight!"

glitch: flaw.

"There must be a glitch in this softwware."

go bananas: go slightly mad.

"This project is causing me to go bananas!"

gomer: a dumb person.

"Stop acting like a gomer!"

goof (1): a silly and foolish person.

"What a goof you are!"

goof (2): make a mistake.

I really goofed on the test today."

goof off (1): waste time.

"Stop goofing off and help me clean the house!"

goof-off (2): someone who wastes time and isn't serious.

"A goof-off never does well in school"

goof up: make a mistake.

"Oh no! I really goofed up!"

goofy: silly.

"Kids always make me feel goofy!"

grabbers: hands.

"Have you washed your grabbers, Benjamin?"

grand: one thousand dollars.

"He's making over a hundred grand a year!"

grass: marijuana.

"Have you ever smoked grass?"

grub: food.

"Where's the grub?!"

grubby: not clean.

"I always feel grubby in the morning."

grungy: unclean and stinky.

"Grungy people are not allowed in Dave's house!"

gut: a person's stomach; belly.

"Dave is getting a big gut because he loves chocolate ice cream and beer!"

guts (1): courage.

"It took a lot of guts to ask his boss for a raise."

guts (2): the nature of something.

"Let's get to the guts of Dave Sperling!"

hairy: difficult; dangerous.

"The steep and windy road was really hairy."

hang a left: make a left turn.

"Hang a left at the next corner."

hang a right: make a right turn.

"Hang a right at the next corner."

head: toilet.

"I really need to use the head!"

hep: sensible; informed.

"She's a really hep student."

hickey: a love bite on the skin.

"Wow! Is that a hickey on your neck?"

hip: sensible; informed.

"He really tries hard to be hip."

hooker [possibly offensive]: prostitute.

"You'll find a lot of hookers in the red light district."

horny [possibly offensive]: sexually stimulated; in the mood for sex.

"Red wine seems to make my boyfriend horny. "

hot (1): popular.

"Brad Pitt is really hot now."

hot (2): sexy.

"Wow! Cindy Crawford is really hot!"

humungous: really big.

"American supermarkets are humungous."

hungries, to have: be hungry.

"I don't know about you, but I've got the hungries."

hyper: overly excited.

"Children often get hyper when they are tired."

icky: unpleasant.

"The food is really icky in the school cafeteria."

I.D.: identification.

"If you want to order a beer, you'll need your I.D."

I'm outta here: I'm leaving; I'm departing.

"Sorry, but I'm outta here, dude."

in: fashionable.

"Ray-Ban sunglasses are really in now."

ivories: teeth.

"Tom Cruise has really beautiful ivories."

jack around [possibly offensive]: waste time.

"Will you please stop jacking around?"

jam, in a (1): trouble.

"If you're in a jam, I promise to help you."

jam (2): improvise (musically).

"I'd love to jam with Bon Jovi!"

jamming, to be : going well.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is really jamming!"

jerk: stupid or annoying person.

"How could you go out with such a jerk?"

jillion: an immense number.

"Do you really have a jillion problems?"

jock: someone good at sports.

"I've never been much of a jock."

john: toilet.

"Where's the john?"

K (k): a thousand.

"I could retire with 100 K (k)!"

kick back: relax and enjoy.

"I wish I could kick back at the beach today."

kick off: die.

"My dog finally kicked off."

killer: something exceptional or great.

"Wow, your boyfriend is killer!"

knock: condemn.

"Don't knock it unless you've tried it."

knockout: beautiful woman; handsome man.

"Benjamin is already a knockout!"

kook: peculiar person.

"Stop acting like a kook!"

laid back: relaxed; calm.

"I always feel laid back at the beach."

lame: incompetent.

"Dave is really lame when is comes to fixing his car."

lip: cheeky talk.

"My students are always giving me lip!"

loser: a bungling and worthless person.

"Why are you dating such a loser?"

love handles: excess fat around the waist.

"Is it possible for Dave to lose his love handles?"

luck out: to be lucky or fortunate.

"You really luck out by visiting Dave's ESL Cafe!"

make waves: cause problems.

"Teachers don't like students to make waves."

max, to the : maximum.

"I'm happy to the max."

mega: big.

"American restaurants serve mega portions of food."

megabucks: a large amount of money.

"It takes megabucks to live in Japan."

mellow: relaxed.

"I'm feeling very mellow this evening."

mickey-mouse: unimportant; time-wasting.

"I'm sick of this mickey-mouse job."

monkey bite: a kiss that leaves a mark on the skin.

"I don't want any monkey bites tonight, okay?"

munch out: to eat voraciously.

"Let's munch out on a large pizza!"

nada: nothing (from Spanish).

"I know nada about politics."

neat: cool; great.

"Isn't my new car neat?"

noid: someone that's paranoid.

"Why are you so noid?"

nuke (1): nuclear weapon.

"This world had too many nukes."

nuke (2): destroy; delete.

"Sorry, but I accidentally nuked your e-mail message."

nuke (3): cook something in the microwave oven.

"Can you nuke this frozen pizza for me?"

nut (1): odd or crazy person.

"Why are you always acting like a nut?"

nut (2): someone passionate about something.

"I'm a nut about computers."

nuts [offensive]: testicles.

"Don't ever kick me in the nuts."

okay: decent.

"My boss is an okay person."

OK: decent.

"Dave is an okay person."

pad: someone's home.

"Can I sleep at your pad tonight?"

party: celebrate.

"Let's party tonight!"

party animal: someone that loves parties.

"Dave has been known to sometimes be a party animal."

paws: hands.

"Get your paws off me!"

peanuts: very little money.

"I love my job, but the pay is peanuts."

pee: to urinate.

"I always have to pee after drinking beer."

pickled: drunk.

"He got pickled on vodka."

pig out: eat too much.

"Dave is famous for pigging out on chocolate ice cream."

piss: to urinate.

"My dog pissed on me!"

pissed (off): angry; upset.

"I'm really pissed (off) at you."

plastered: drunk.

"Why does he always get plastered?"

pad: someone's home.

"Can I sleep at your pad tonight?"

poop, the (1): knowledge; information.

"What's the poop on Michael Jackson?"

poop [offensive] (2): defecation; shit.

"Be careful not to step on dog poop."

poop out: get tired and quit.

"I got pooped out after spending eight hours at Disneyland."

pot (1): toilet.

"Who's on the pot?"

pot (2): marijuana.

"It's easy to buy pot in the big city."

pro: someone who's good at something; professional.

"She's really a pro at golf."

psycho: crazy person.

"Stay away from that psycho!"

puke: vomit.

"Alcohol makes some people puke."

pumped (up): excited.

"I'm really pumped (up) about Dave's ESL Cafe!"

puss: the face.

"My girlfriend slapped me right on the puss."

quarterback: leader.

"Dave is the quarterback of Dave's ESL Cafe."

quick and dirty: done fast, but not well.

"The mechanic did a quick and dirty repair on my car."

racket (1): noise.

"Small kids can make a lot of racket."

racket (2): something that's dishonest or deceptive.

"The Tobacco Industry is quite a racket."

racket (3): an occupation.

"I've been in the ESL racket for fourteen years."

rank: give someone a difficult time.

"She's always ranking her teacher."

rat: a despicable person.

"I thought I loved you, but now I know you're really a rat."

razz: annoy someone.

"Will you please stop razzing me?"

rear (end): buttocks.

"Dave fell on his rear (end)."

riot, a : something or someone very funny.

"Jim Carrey is a riot!"

rip off (1): stealing.

"Someone ripped off my car."

rip off (2): fraud.

"I paid $10,000 for my computer. What a rip off!"

rocking: great; excellent.

"Dave's ESL class is really rocking!"

rubbish: nonsense; not true.

"That rumor is a bunch of rubbish."

rug rat: a child.

"Dave has a couple of rug rats at home."

runs, the: diarrhea.

"Oh no! I've got the runs!"

scarf: to eat.

"I can easily scarf an entire banana split."

screw up: to make a mistake.

"I screwed up on the driving test, so I didn't pass."

screw-up: a person who makes a mistake.

"Why are you such a screw-up?"

scum: a despicable individual.

"Don't hang around with that kind of scum."

shades: sunglasses.

"Those are really cool shades!"

shoot some hoops: play basketball.

"Let's shoot some hoops!"

silks: clothing.

"Those are really awesome silks!"

smarts: intelligence.

"It takes a lot of smarts to become a doctor."

smurfbrain: a dumb or stupid person.

"Stop acting like a smurfbrain!"

snookered: cheated.

"I got snookered into buying swamp land in Florida."

sofa spud: a person who watches too much television.

"I'm usually a sofa spud on Sunday."

solid (1): really good; cool.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is totally solid!"

solid (2): consecutive.

"It's been raining for seven solid days."

specs: eyeglasses.

"I didn't know that you wore specs."

split: to leave.

"Let's split from here now."

spunk: spirit.

"She might be small, but she's got a lot of spunk."

stoned (out): drunk from drugs or alcohol.

"I'm really stoned (out), dude!"

street smart: knowledgeable about city life.

"Since Dave is from Los Angeles, he's very street smart."

suck: to be bad and unacceptable.

"That song really sucks!"

technicolor yawn, to do a : vomit.

"My dog just did a technicolor yawn all over the carpet!"

thou: thousand.

"I need to borrow a hundred thou."

threads: clothing.

"My wife spent $900 on new threads."

ticker (1): the heart.

"My grandfather has a bad ticker."

ticker (2): a watch.

"Wow! That's a really cool ticker!"

tints: sunglasses.

"You have to wear tints in California."

totally: really; completely.

"That's totally awesome, dude!"

to the max: maximum.

"I studied to the max."

turkey (1): failure; flop.

"Thank goodness that Dave's ESL Cafe is not a turkey!"

turkey (2): dumb person.

"Turkeys are not allowed to work for this company."

turn-off: something that repulses a person.

"Bad breath is a real turn-off."

umpteen: many; countless.

"I've asked you umpteen times to show me the money!"

unlax: relax.

"Dave needs to definitely unlax with his family."

upchuck: vomit.

"She got sick and upchucked three times."

uptight: nervous; anxious.

"Why are you so uptight?"

vanilla (1): plain.

"She drives a vanilla car."

vanilla (2): Caucasian.

"The Midwest is too vanilla for me."

wad: roll of money.

"It's dangerous to carry a big wad in your pocket."

wasted: killed.

"A lot of people get wasted in the streets of New York."

wheels: car; motorcycle.

"If you want to live in Los Angeles, you've got to get some wheels"

whitebread: plain; boring.

"Dave's ESL Cafe is definitely not whitebread!"

whiz (1): someone who shows a special talent for something.

"Einstein was a whiz in Physics."

whiz [offensive] (2): to urinate.

"I really have to take a whiz."

wimpy: weak.

"Don't be so wimpy!"

winks, get some: sleep.

"I really need to get some winks"

wrongo: wrong.

"That is totally wrongo!"

yank (1): bother; harass.

"Stop yanking me, okay?"

Yank (2): a Yankee; an American.

"Dave is a Yank."

zero: an unimportant person.

"If you don't work hard, you'll end up a zero."

zip (1): nothing.

"I don't know zip about you."

zip (2): energy; vigor.

"I need something that will give me more zip. "

zit: pimple; acne. "Teens often have a lot of zits."

Trinh Thi Ngat

Tổng số bài gửi : 33
Join date : 13/10/2009

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